Understanding The International Law

International Law refers to the set of rules that are generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations. It serves as a framework for the practice of stable and organized international relations. In the United Nations, one of their primary goals is the development of International Law. The main objective in the Preamble is ‘to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained.’

international law

international law

International Law defines the legal responsibilities of States in their conduct with each other, and their treatment of individuals within State boundaries. Its area encompasses a wide range of international concerns such as human rights, disarmament, international crimes, refugees, migration, problems of nationality, treatment of prisoners, the use of force, and the conduct of war, among others. In addition, it regulates the global commons like the environment, sustainable development, international waters, outer space, global communications, and world trade.

There are three distinct legal disciplines regarding the International Law:

1. Public International Law

This one governs the relationship between states and international entities. It includes legal fields like treaty law, law of sea, international criminal law, the laws of war or international humanitarian law, international human rights law, and refugee law. The norms of this law have their source in either: custom or customary international law; globally accepted standards of behavior; and codifications contained in conventional agreements, generally termed treaties. Under Article 13 of the United Nations Charter, it obligates the UN General Assembly to initiate studies and make recommendations that will encourage the progressive development of international law and its codification.

2. Private International Law or Conflict of Laws

This law governs conflicts between private persons and addresses the question of which jurisdiction should be permitted to hear a legal dispute between private parties, and which jurisdiction’s law should be applied, thus raising the issues of international law. The prominent example of this case is related in today’s businesses. Nowadays, businesses are capable of shifting capital and labor supply chains across borders and trading with overseas corporations. However, there are increasing number of disputes of inter-state nature outside a unified legal framework, and raises the issues of the enforceability of standard practices.

3. Supranational Law or the Law of Supranational Organizations

It refers to treaty law made in and between sovereign states. Law is defined as ‘a rule of conduct or action prescribed or formally recognized as binding or enforced by a controlling authority.’ On the other hand, sovereign is defined as ‘supreme power or authority.’ It is concerned with regional agreements where the laws of nation states may be held inapplicable when conflicting with a supranational legal system, especially when that nation has a treaty obligation to a supranational collective.

Car Accident Law

No matter how careful you are, there are times that accident will still happen to you. It might not be caused by yourself, but due to other drivers on the road. However, it is still important that you always make sure that you are safe from harm. Check your car for leaks, if your tires are properly inflated, the lights are properly working, the window if there is good visibility, the gauges if everything is working properly, the airbag, and the software system in your car. Most importantly, make sure that you are wearing your seatbelt properly while inside the moving car. People regarded BMW as one of the safest cars that everyone should use. Besides its splendid designs, efficient machine, lightweight construction, they are offering the best safety gears and software for their customers. You can visit this website about BMW cars to know more about it.

car accident law

car accident law

If ever you find yourself in a car accident, you should know about the laws regarding it. Car accident law refers to the legal rules that determine who is responsible for the personal and property damage resulting from a traffic collision. The main principle of the area regarding this law is negligence, which is applied to particular category of personal injury cases. And like in other cases, car accident litigation is governed almost entirely by state law. For car accident victims in every state, they must prove the same basic four elements in order to recover compensation: duty; breach; causation; and harm. Duty refers to the legal obligation of all drivers to obey the rules of the road and to operate their vehicles in a reasonable manner. It include driving a safe speed, maintaining control, exercising awareness, observing traffic signals, using blinkers and headlights, etc. In contrast, the plaintiff will be required to offer evidence that the defendant breached that duty. Breach can be shown using direct evidence like eyewitness testimonies, traffic surveillance video, or an admission of fault, skid marks, paint smudges, or blood alcohol readings. Causation is where the victim will have to make medical testimony and demonstrate that the injuries are consistent with the nature of the crash. Finally, the plaintiff should prove harm. The plaintiff can’t file a negligence lawsuit unless the other party involved produced damage to the plaintiff’s person or vehicle. ‘Near miss’ cases do not qualify. Once harm is proven, the plaintiff may be entitled to compensation for medical expenses, pain and grief, lost wages, and more.

Business Law

Business law is also known as commercial law. Generally, it encompasses all of the laws regarding how to run and form a business including state and federal laws, as well as administrative regulations. It applies to the rights, relations, and conduct of persons and businesses engaged in commerce, merchandising, trade, and sales. Some specific examples of this kind of law are: titles as principal and agent; carriage by land and sea; merchant shipping; guarantee; marine, life, fire and accident insurance; bills of exchange and partnership. It also includes the regulation of corporate contracts, hiring practices, and the manufacture and sales of consumer goods. Thus, business law is considered to be a branch of civil law and deals with issues of both private law and public law.

business law

business law

If you are just starting your business, you may want to seek advice of a licensed attorney. You have to be familiar with several business laws that you should follow. Business laws are addressing different ones depending on the type of business organizations. There are certain laws regarding how to properly form and run each type, which includes laws about entities such as corporations, partnerships, and limited liability companies. You have to be familiar with different types of law in order to start your business:

  • Business entities: This is the law where the type of ownership will fall; either you choose your business to be a partnership or a sole proprietorship. You will also need to know what documents should be filed in order to start the business. These are state laws.
  • Federal income taxes: It will depend on the entity that you will pick and this is part of the federal laws.
  • Intellectual property law: It involves the patents, copyrights, and trademarks of a business like the name and the logo. Mostly it is governed by the federal law.
  • Consumer protection law: This involves the license or special permits that you will need for your business, and how you will advertise. This is under federal or state law.

Law Firms

A law firm is a business entity that is formed by one or more lawyers that are engaged in the practice of law. The primary service that they provide their clients (either individuals or corporations) are: advise about their legal rights and responsibilities; represent clients in civil or criminal cases and business transactions; and other matters where legal advice and other assistance are sought.

There are different types of law firms based on the arrangement or ownership:

  • Sole proprietorship – where the attorney is the law firm and is the one responsible for all profit, loss, and liability.
  • General partnership – where all the attorneys that are members of the firm share ownership, profits, and liabilities.
  • Professional corporations – this is similar with business corporation, where stocks are issued to the attorneys.
  • Limited liability company – this is a hybrid business entity having certain characteristics of both a corporation and a partnership or sole proprietorship. The attorney owners are called ‘members’ but are not directly liable to third party creditors of the law firm. Limited liability refers to the person’s financial liability being limited to a fixed sum.
  • Professional association – which is usually a nonprofit organization where the attorneys are practicing their professions and pursuing the public interest. It operates similarly to a professional corporation or a limited liability company.
  • Limited liability partnership – the attorney owners are partners with one another. However, no partner is liable to any creditor of the law firm nor is any partner liable for any negligence on the part of any other partner. This type of ownership is taxed as a partnership, while enjoying the liability protection of a corporation.
law firms

law firms

Law firms also vary in size. It can be a lawyer that practices the profession alone, up to a large number of lawyers under the same company and are assigned in different branches all over the world. Smaller firms usually focus on particular specialties of the law like patent law, labor law, tax law, criminal defense or personal injury. For large firms, they are usually composed of several specialized practice groups that allow the firm to be more diverse and have different client base and market. For law firms, it can be advantageous if they are using proxy servers because of its several uses: it can share internet connection on the LAN; implement internet access control; and scan outbound content. You can find the best proxy servers available in buyproxies.io.

Top Law Schools Around The World

QS World University Rankings is the most widely read university rankings all over the world. This is an annual publication of university rankings by Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) Company. It is comprised of global overall and subject rankings, as well as three independent regional tables: Asia, Latin America and BRICS; with different methodologies.

harvard law school

harvard law school

The QS World University Rankings by Subject ranks the world’s top universities in individual areas, covering 36 subjects. The rankings are aimed at upcoming students in search of identifying the world’s leading school in their chosen field of study. Three extensive datasets are used in order to rank universities’ performance in specific academic disciplines. These three components are: academic reputation; employer reputations; and research impact, which are combined to produce results in each subject, with different weightings.

• Academic reputation

This is measured using a global survey, where academics are asked to identify the institutions where they believe the best work is currently taking place within their field of expertise. This survey was collated over three years. Participants’ most recent responses are used and they cannot vote for their own institution. In order to counter any discrepancies in response rates, regional weightings are applied. This indicator gives the students a sense of consensus opinion among those who are by definition experts. They give a view on where the most significant research is currently taking place within their field.

• Employer reputation

This indicator is unique among other international university rankings. In this indicator, the survey asks employers to identify the universities that they perceive as producing the best graduates. The purpose is to give the students a better sense of how universities are viewed in the job market. To help prospective students to identify universities with a reputation that extends beyond their national borders, higher weighting is given to votes for universities that come from outside of their own country.

• Research citations per paper

To avoid potential anomalies stemming from small numbers of highly cited papers, a minimum publication threshold has been set for each subject. And in order to best reflect the prevalent publication and citations patterns in a given discipline, the minimum publication threshold and the weighting were applied to this indicator. Another factor is the ‘h-index’ that measures both the productivity and impact of the published work of a scientist or scholar. This is based on the set of the scientist’s most cited papers and the number of citations that s/he has received in other publications. It can also be applied to the productivity and impact of a group of scientists including a department, university, country or scholarly journal.

This ranking highlights top-performing universities in the field of legal studies around the world. See the list below of the Top 10 Law Schools around the World.

Rate Name of Institution Location
1 Harvard University United States
2 University of Cambridge United Kingdom
3 University of Oxford United Kingdom
4 Yale University United States
5 New York University United States
6 Stanford University United States
7 London School of Economics and Political Science United Kingdom
8 The University of Melbourne Australia
9 University of California, Berkeley United States
10 Columbia University United States

Types Of Law Firms

At his best, man is the noblest of all animals; separated from law and justice he is the worst. – Aristotle



A law firm is a business entity formed by one or more lawyers engaging in the practice of law. Their primary service is to advise clients, including individuals, small businesses and large corporations about their legal rights and responsibilities. They also represent clients in cases, business transactions, and other matters where legal advice and further assistance are sought. With these variations in clients’ needs, there are many different types of law firms. Law firms come vary greatly in size, which can range from single-attorney law practices to large firms with a hundred or more lawyers plus their support staff. Law offices can specialize in one legal area or be a general practice firm with a variety of practice areas. Deciding which law firm to hire will depend on several factors, which will include your finances, geographical location, personal work preferences, and your specific legal challenge or need. Choosing the right firm can make a difference between a successful outcome and missed opportunity.

Below is a summary of the various types of law firms.

• Solo firm

As the name suggests, it is run by a single lawyer. They typically handle general legal matters on a variety of topic – including real estate, family law, wills and probate, and business law. They usually work with individuals and small businesses because their fees are less expensive. They have the flexibility to hire outside staff, such as paralegals and legal experts – which further lower the costs and/or assistance with special tasks. They can also provide you more one-on-one assistance since they would be working on your case single-handedly. Note that they may also lack extensive experiences or resources, especially if the lawyer is a recent graduate.

• Small Law Firms

They are referred as ‘boutique’ law firm because they only employ two to ten lawyers. Thus, they have a close-knit circle that allows lawyers an opportunity to collaborate with other lawyers on complicated or related legal matters. They also have the impression of solo law firm because most of the time they will have one-on-one attention to their client, but may also allow for representation on a broader range of legal topics.

• Large Law Firms

large law firms

large law firms

They are sometimes called as corporate law firm, and usually work with medium to large businesses and corporations. This type of firm has several legal departments, with groups of lawyers who specialize in an area. They also have other employees that provide lawyers with support service, including: paralegals, administrative staff, human resources specialists, librarians, and other staff. They are able to handle most types of legal work including business transactions, large scale litigation, and criminal defense matters. In this kind of firm, lawyers can share ownership with the law firm and they are called as ‘partners’, while lawyers who are employees of the firm are ‘associates’.

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The Purpose Of Criminal Law

criminal law

criminal law

The word criminal law simply directs a person’s mind to think about the laws used to punish the criminals. The criminals are actually established to create a legal framework needed to decide the suitable punishments for the crimes committed. The criminality law outlines the process a person who is charged with a crime before the actual sentencing. There is the need for the charged person to be treated with respect just like other people until the conviction. The criminal sentence for any crime can vary from fines, prison time, probation, and community service punishments. The extent of the punishment depends on the type of the crime the criminal is involved.

Someone would be curious to know where the criminals actually started. The history of criminal laws dates back to when there were no forms of constitution like it is today. In the past, the monarchs had a number of rules that we used to govern the community. It is all about morality, where a person who went against the morality of the community was punished using certain guidelines. Over the years, some of the old forms of punishments are still used today such as serving prison time. The major purpose of criminal laws is to act as a deterrent. By issuing the punishment to other criminals, the states always hope that it serves as an example to other people to stop committing crime. Rehabilitation is also another purpose of criminal laws. The rehabilitation part is important to help a criminal reform before being reintegrated into the community again.

The Applications Of International Law

international law

international law

Whenever you go to law school, studying international law is something that is an option for people who would love to work for international organizations. Your job will be to deal with the different issues arising within the company against the other companies. You need to mitigate to ensure that there is still a good working relation between these two companies. Someone might ask about the salary of such a job. Working as a master in the international law will depend on the organization. Some companies might pay more while the others would pay the average salary of any international lawyer. The qualifications are quite simple, the first thing you need is a degree in international law. Having additional qualifications in different fields might just make it easy to get work.

International lawyers also get work in the government sectors. In many countries, there is the civil service department that needs the work of international lawyers. Most of the civil sector will need people who are actually good in representing their country in international matters. The most common place for the international lawyers to work it is under the NGOs. The NGOs are likely to operate in more than one country and they need a lawyer for legal procedures. Many lawyers now have their own blog where they can connect with clients. Ensure to embed Google maps to help the clients to know your exact location.

Studying for a Business Law Exam? Here are some tips

The Business Law Exam is mandatory for those people looking to have a better foundation for the career in law. The business law exam is one thing that an employer is likely to ask before awarding a job. Ensure that you give it the seriousness it deserves when working towards doing the exam. Here are a few tips on how to study for this important exam.

studying for a business law exam

studying for a business law exam

i. This is like any other exam. You just have to start studying early. Waiting until the last minute is likely the worst idea as it will have more pressure on you. In addition, you will not have enough time to read every bit of important information before the exam starts. Start by gathering your course material. If you do not have one, refer to friends who are doing the same course. They should give you the notes and any other references needed for studying. By doing this, you will not have to read irrelevant content that would not be tested.

ii. Going through the case studies will help you understand what the business law requires you to think. Having a clear understanding of different case studies should help in doing the business law exam in case it has a case study. Always try as much as possible to get other supplement material. It does not hurt to check out online resources for more information. The examiner might just decide to bring something out of the course scope and require you to do your own research and come up with an answer.

iii. You just need a place where you can study without any sort of disturbances from other people. If you have kids, studying at home might be hard on your side. There is the need to find the best place to study such as the library if possible. Learn to take breaks from studying too hard. The brain also needs some time off the books to cool down before you can continue. Breaks are recommended to keep the mind fresh and help you to focus for a long time. Learn how to ask for help from other people such as friends who are going to do the same exam. Ask about those points you do not understand. They will help you understand a number of concepts you probably never knew. You need to have confidence when entering the exam room knowing that you have covered most of the content.

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